Filter Cartridges - FAQs
Provided they are stored unopened in the original packaging and away from direct sunlight, humidity and sources of high temperature, filter cartridges will last five years from manufacture date.
Prior to first use and when not in use, your cartridges and filters should be kept clean, cool and dry, away from contaminated atmospheres to avoid deterioration. Store cartridge in a sealed container or bag.
In order for our filters to perform as represented and to provide the best quality of the filter product possible, it is essential that filters be replaced periodically. We recommend replacing your filter cartridge when capacity is reached or at least once a year. The frequency of filter changes depends upon your water/ product quality and your water/ product usage. For example, if there is a lot of sediment and/or particles in your water/ product, then you will have to change your filters more frequently than someone does with little or no sediment. Be sure to replace your filters whenever you notice a decline in the performance, whether it is a drop in flow rate and/or pressure or an unusual taste in the water.
All carbon-based filters need to be flushed to remove any excess carbon fines that are inside the cartridges. New cartridges are filled with air; therefore, flushing also removes the air from inside the cartridges and replaces it with water. The flushing process will allow any carbon-based cartridge to function at optimum levels without affecting any equipment that may be attached.
Pre-Filters are designed to help increase the clarity of the water or your product. They reduce sediment such as rust and silt particles. They also prepare your water/ product for final filtration and are effective at optimizing the life of your final filter. Final filters are designed for point-of-use filtration.
Using a combination of both types of filters will help optimize the filtration quality of your water/ product. A Pre-filter installed on your incoming line (point-of-entry) will reduce the incoming sediment and help extend the life of your Final Filter.
PTFE cartridge filters for air/ gas filtration
Yes, SS Filters PTFE cartridges are suitable for sterile gas applications. They are validated and checked for quality control and are suitable for critical applications where sterility of the filtered gas is of utmost importance.
Distilled water tanks are maintained at 80ºC. The water vapour coming out of the tank through the vent filter condenses inside the pore of the cartridge filter due to much lower outside temperature. This results in water logging the filter which in turn does not allow the passage of air.
Steam jacketed filter housing should be used to keep the filter at 80°C and prevent water logging.
Even the most hydrophobic of filters may end up liquid logged under some set of circumstances, particularly during steaming and integrity testing. This will invariably affect the flow characteristics in an adverse manner. The time required to blow dry the filter enough to restore a usable or minimum required flow rate is referred to as the blow-down time.
Yes, SS Filters PTFE cartridges can be steam sterilized for approx 100 to 125 cycles at 121°C for 30 minutes.
PTFE Capsule Filters for Air/Gas Filtration
Yes, SS Filters PTFE capsules are suitable for sterile gas applications. They are validated and checked for quality control and are suitable for critical applications where sterility of the filtered gas is of utmost importance.
Yes, SS Filters PTFE capsules can be steam sterilized for 100 cycles at 121°C for 30 minutes
Polyethersulfone Cartridge Filters for Aseptic Liquid Filtration
All SS Filters sterilizing grade filters are validated for microbial retention.
30 times at 121°C for 30 minutes.
SS Filters PES cartridge filters give 99.9% protein recovery.
Polyethersulfone Capsule Filters for Aseptic Liquid Filtration
All SS Filters sterilizing grade filters are tested for microbial retention.
25 times at 121°C for 30 minutes.
SS Filters PES capsule filters give 99.9% protein recovery.
It is very important to completely remove entrapped air from the capsule filter by crack opening the vent on the inlet side. This will help maximize flows.
A certificate of Quality stating the same accompanies each lot.
Process Filtration Products
As a thumb rule a well designed filtration system should have one 10" cartridge filter for every 1m³/hour of flow rate.
You can use our 0.2µm PES capsule, 5" capsule filter will have a hold up volume of < 30ml to maximize recoveries. The filters also offer very high flow rates and throughputs.
Black particles are normally formed from bungs on inline gasket seals in the wash water lines. Please check wash lines for any disfigured seals. Also check the quality of rubber bungs. Poor quality bungs can release rubber particles to cause heavy rejections.
Capsule Filtration Systems
SS Filters capsule filters have very low hold up volume (< 5 ml for 1" capsule) therefore maximize product recovery. This is of critical importance in case of high value products such as hormone vaccines or oncology drugs. Whereas, disc filters or cartridge filter systems have a large hold up volumes (>150ml).
Capsule filtration systems for up to 20 liters are available. However, large systems can be custom designed to suit specific needs.
This can sometime happen and in order to avoid this, it is recommended to keep changing the tubing position inside the pump head.
Activated Carbon Filter Cartridge - FAQs
Charcoal is carbon. Activated carbon is charcoal that has been treated with oxygen to open up millions of tiny pores between the carbon atoms.
The use of special manufacturing techniques results in highly porous charcoals that have surface areas of 300-2,000 square metres per gram. These so-called active, or activated, charcoals are widely used to adsorb odorous or coloured substances from gases or liquids.
The word adsorb is important here. When a material adsorbs something, it attaches to it by chemical attraction. The huge surface area of activated charcoal gives it countless bonding sites. When certain chemicals pass next to the carbon surface, they attach to the surface and are trapped.
Activated charcoal is good at trapping other carbon-based impurities ("organic" chemicals), as well as things like chlorine.Many other chemicals are not attracted to carbon at all -- sodium, nitrates, etc. -- so they pass right through. This means that an activated charcoal filter will remove certain impurities while ignoring others. It also means that, once all of the bonding sites are filled, an activated charcoal filter stops working. At that point you must replace the filter.
Carbon filters are the most commonly used filter to remove chlorine from water. The carbon media reduces the chlorine to chloride.
Backwashing filtering systems are available and are great for some applications (sediment filters, acid neutralizers, ion exchange systems, etc.). When used on a carbon system, it will remove the sediment buildup around the carbon, but does nothing to clean the actual carbon. Carbon absorbs chemicals like a sponge absorbs water. Once saturated, the carbon can no longer absorb any more chemicals and it must be disposed of. As of right now, we are not aware of any way in which the carbon can be cleaned and recycled.
The iodine test and phenol test. The iodine number is defined as the amount of iodine (in milligrams) adsorbed by one gram of carbon under a certain set of conditions. The larger the number, the more the carbon filter can adsorb. Phenol is another measure of effectiveness. The lower the phenol number, the better the carbon is at removing organics.
Activated carbon filters do not adsorb every type of contaminant equally. The solid material used in an activated carbon filter is a specialized carbon manufactured for these purposes. Contaminants adhere to the surface of these carbon granules or become trapped in the small pores of the filter. Therefore generally, an activated carbon filter is used with a pre-treatment filter to remove sediment or iron particles that may be present and can clog the carbon filter.
Activated carbon has been successfully used in numerous gas processing applications for many years. Activated carbon's highly porous nature and large surface area make it an ideal adsorbent for removing trace contaminants from liquid and gaseous streams. For some inorganic contaminants encountered in gas processing operations, removal can be enhanced by impregnation of the activated carbon to promote both physical adsorption and chemisorption.
Activated carbon (AC) filtration is most effective in removing organic contaminants from water. Organic substances are composed of two basic elements, carbon and hydrogen. Because organic chemicals are often responsible for taste, odor, and color problems, AC filtration can generally be used to improve aesthetically objectionable water. AC filtration will also remove chlorine. AC filtration is recognized by the Water Quality Association as an acceptable method to maintain certain drinking water contaminants within the limits of the EPA National Drinking Water Standards.
Similar to other types of water treatment, activated carbon filtration is effective for some contaminants and not effective for others. Activated carbon filtration does not remove microbes, sodium, nitrates, fluoride, and hardness. Lead and other heavy metals are removed only by a very specific type of activated carbon filter. Unless the manufacturer states that its product will remove heavy metals, the consumer should assume that the activated carbon filter is not effective in removing them.
This depends on the quality of the source water. Generally, if the water to be filtered is municipally-treated city water low in minerals, then these carbon block filtration systems are the best type. If the water is very high in minerals, then a reverse osmosis system or distiller that removes minerals, salts and chemicals may be desired. If you see a large amount of white mineral staining on your fixtures, or you use a water softener to soften your water, generally we recommend reverse osmosis systems which remove the dissolved minerals and salts in addition to removing the chlorine tastes and odors. The carbon block filters remove chlorine and chemicals, and some selective metals such as lead, but leave in the minerals and salts such as calcium and sodium.
Yes. If your water has a moderate to high total dissolved solids content over 300 or 400 ppm, then merely filtering the water of chlorine will improve taste, but many people will say the water still tastes "heavy" or "minerally" compared to purified water. Taste is very subjective, and the ability to taste varies widely from person to person. The higher the TDS level, particularly when it reaches over 500 PPM (the USEPA recommended aesthetic guideline) the more people will want to purify the water by using reverse osmosis or distillation, or by purchasing bottled water. However, in areas where the TDS is low, carbon distillation, or by purchasing bottled water. However, in areas where the TDS is low, carbon filtering the water can make it taste great, without the need for further filtration.
Yes and no. We have tested many of our systems for total bacteria counts over the years and have not found higher levels after the systems unless the systems sat for several days in between uses. However, in some cases, particularly if the source water is high in bacteria and/or low in chlorine residual, bacteria can grow. It is always wise to run the water, from any tap, for a few moments to avoid getting the water that has sat in the fixture or filter. An ultraviolet sterilizer can be used to disinfect the water after it leaves the filter system, insuring disinfected water.
Coalescent Filter Cartridge - FAQs
Several reasons may cause excessive pressure drop. The element may be dirty and need to be replaced.It is possible the filter could be smaller than needed to handle the flow requirements, and a larger filter may be required.It is also possible, that a larger micron rated element may be needed for that particular application.
No. Coalescent filter removes gas and moisture from air stream. Where as Dessicant breather is basically vent filter which is installed at the top of the tank where moisture is a problem. Dessicant breather filter allows the dry air in, and dry air out keeping the Dessicant media moisture free.
The removal of water and gross contaminants from the air line, by a 5-micron-rated general purpose fitler used before the coalescing filter will greatly extend the useful life of the coalescing element. A coalescing element cartridge life, for a year or more, is possible when a general-purpose filter with automatic drain is installed ahead of a properly sized (by SCFM) coalescing filter.
It depends on the application. If there is a problem or expectation of solids in the product stream you should definitely use a micronic prefilter upstream of the filter/separator. The micronic filter is anywhere from a third to a fourth of the cost and has four times the surface area of a coalescer. It has a large solids handling capacity and can assist in maximizing the service life of the coalescer elements preventing premature failure as a result of excessive solid contaminant loading.
The filter element will coalesce liquids until solid contaminates cause the pressure drop across the element to exceed 8 to 10 psi (0.55 to 0.69) bar. The cartridge should be changed promptly at that time.
SCFM ( standard cubic feet per minute) is the weight of air in one cubic foot of space at 70 F. and 14.7 PSIA.
A particulate filter has a course element usually rated between 5 -100 microns and only traps particulate matter on the surface of the element. Because of the turbulences of the air flow created by the baffle in the filter, some solid liquids will drop out of the air. Coalescing filter are often rated to remove aerosols that are substantially smaller than the nominal size of the smallest solid particle that would be captured.
Filter Pads - FAQs
Filter pads consist of a blend of refined cellulose fibers, powdery filter aids eg: keiselguhr (diatomaceous earth) and / or perlite. As a general rule, the more filter aids, the better the retention. An inert resin is added to provide a wet strength and to create a positive charge or zeta potential. This positive charge enhances the retention of small negatively charged particles.
Mass of these fibers along with other material as told above are slurried in water and refined in order to develop the desired end use properties and then formed into a sheet or pad by squeezing, sucking or evaporating by heating technique.
Pads are also available in other material such as felts, non woven and metallic sintered structures such as stainless steel or brass.
While cellulose is appropriate for some applications, synthetic media typically offers the lower differential pressure, higher temperature resistance, and longer shelf life. Synthetic filters can also be used with a geater variety of fluids and are more chemically stable. Cellulose elements are usually less expensive, but will probably have to be changed out more often.
A demister pad, is a device used for removing entrained liquid droplets from a gas stream. As the name suggests the demister is used for removal of the mist from gaseous phase. Demister pad is often fitted just below the top vapor outlet of a vapor liquid separator.
The demister pads work by coalescing smaller liquid droplets by obstructing their path. Obstruction of path causes increased collisions among the liquid droplets. Most of these droplets stick together and form bigger droplets which are too heavy to rise with the gas stream. Thus the bigger liquid drops drop down in the pool of liquid below. Gas stream is not affected by the obstruction in the path and escapes through top vapor outlet. The obstruction in the path of liquid droplets can be achieved by a variety of geometries. Demister pad may be a mesh type coalescer, vane pack or other structure intended to aggregate the mist into droplets that are heavy enough to separate from the vapor stream.
Membrane Filter - FAQs
Pore size is only a name designation. One manufacturer's pore size designation can be quite different from another's. Bigger pore size is designated for membranes with faster wicking rates.
The wicking time is an important parameter for lateral flow membranes. Membranes of designated pore size will exhibit highly repeatable wicking time.
All membranes exhibit stable wicking rates without blocking. It is possible to make many good assays without blocking. However, should there be a need to wet block the membrane for stabilizing the Ab, reducing nonspecific reaction, or improving the migration of conjugate particles, all membranes can be blocked.
NC is a hydrophobic polymer. To be able to use the NC membrane successfully it is necessary to add a small amount of detergent or a combination of detergents. The amount is so small that it does not affect the binding properties of the membrane.
Properly stored, NC membranes are stable for at least one year. Membrane should be kept away from heat at 40-70% R.H. Whether in roll form or in laminate format, membranes must not be allowed to lie in the open for long periods.
False positive is primarily due to nonspecific binding of the conjugate particles. Using bigger pore size membrane can help reduce this, usually at the cost of sensitivity. Addition of detergents in the sample pad can also help minimize it.
If the NC membranes are allowed to stay in the open for a few days they tend to attract hydrophobic dust particles or other moieties, which can cause above problem. Addition of 2-3% Isopropanol in the reagent formulation will help minimize above problem.
The binding of the protein to the NC membrane grows stronger as it is dehydrated more and more. Usually, at room temp, (20-30° C), 50-60% RH the binding will reach a maximum in 3-5 days. For development, reasonable results can be expected with overnight drying at room temperature.
Membrane does not affect the stability of the assay. It is related to the chemistry of the assay, and many a times it improves by adding sucrose (0.5-1.0%) to the capture Antibody solutions.
The sample pad should not bind proteins nonspecifically, should exhibit good flow characteristics, and have adeQ:uate volume capacity. Its thickness should be such that it fits in the test device.
Sample pads may have many additives which a user can add to achieve desired results from the assay. The additives may be blocking agents for the membrane for rapid and uniform movement of conjugate particles, buffers to control the pH and improve specificity, detergents for improved flow and reduction of false positives.
Unlike other Nitrocellulose membranes available in the market, our SCN membranes offer uniform surface on both sides and give identical results.
Microglassfiber Filter - FAQs
You should use Glass or Quartz fibre filters
You should use microglass fiber filter paper. It is made of borosilicate glass and can take very high temperatures.
You should use microglass fiber filter paper. It has all the above said properties.
Microglass fiber filter paper
Following are the general applications:
- Highly efficient for general laboratory filtration, clarification of buffer and reagent solutions, corresponds to many international standards for air and water pollution monitoring.
- Filtration of suspended solids in water, waste water analysis, pre-filters for membranes, suitable for filtration of large volumes.
- Standard filter for the clarification and monitoring of waste water and water, scintillation counting on the filter.
- Cell harvesting, hydrocarbon analysis where cellulose fibers are a nuisance.
- Universal membrane pre-filter material.
- clarification of protein solutions, filtration of liquids prior to HPLC.
- Filtration and monitoring of water.
pH Paper - FAQs
pH measures the acid content of water. The pH scale (measured from 0.0 – 14.0 pH units) is a logarithmic scale of the hydrogen ion concentration. Solutions with a pH greater than 7.0 are classiﬁed as basic and ones with a pH less than 7.0 as acidic. A pH of 7.0 is neutral. Each pH unit is ten times greater in hydrogen ion concentration than the next. For example, a pH 4.0 water has 10 times the hydrogen ion concentration of water with a pH 5.0. A pH of 3.0 contains 100 times the acid content of pH 5.0. For this reason a small change in pH could have signiﬁcant effects in water quality.
Unless otherwise noted on product label, our SS Filters pH products have a three year shelf life from date of purchase.
Report the match that is the closest. Repeat the test two more times. Take the average of the three readings. It will give a more accurate measurement.
You do not calibrate pH paper. However, to make sure that your pH paper is reading correctly, use a strip of pH paper to test a known standard such as a pH buffer solution or a fresh soda at room temperature.
Some known values are:
Mr. Pibb 2.8
Dip test paper into the test solution or wet the strip by contact with the test material. Remove the test strip immediately and compare the colour of the strip to the colour chart. The number associated with the colour is the pH reading.
A buffered solution is a solution with adequate dissolved solids to resist pH changes. For example, urine and saliva are considered buffered in their natural state. However, rain water, tap water etc. are considered to be dilute, weakly buffered solutions.
For testing weakly buffered solutions, we recommend our SS Filters pH paper strips.
The conductivity of your water might be low. The pH paper takes longer to react with the water if the conductivity is less than 400 micro Siemens/cm (mS/cm). If your water has a conductivity of less than 300 mS/cm, some pH paper does not work well. Another reason you may have problems is if your pH paper is old or has not been stored properly.
A change in water temperature can actually change the pH value of your water. It is recommended that you calculate the pH at room temperature.
Most lakes and streams have pH values that range between 6.5 and 8.5. Pure water that is not in contact with air has a neutral pH value of 7.0. Water with impurities may also have a pH of 7.0 if the acids present are in balance with the bases. Oceans are well buffered and have a constant pH of about 8.2. One can ﬁnd waters that are naturally more acidic in areas with certain types of minerals present (e.g., sulﬁdes). Mining activity can also release acid causing minerals to water bodies. Naturally occurring basic waters are found typically in areas where the soil is rich in minerals such as calcite or limestone. Acids and bases can also enter water bodies as by-products of human activities. pH affects most chemical and biological processes in water. pH has a strong inﬂuence on what can live in the water; aquatic organisms have certain pH ranges they prefer or require. Salamanders, frogs and other amphibian life, as well as many macro invertebrates, are particularly sensitive to extreme pH levels. Most insects, amphibians and ﬁsh are absent in water bodies with pH below 4.0 or above 10.0. Following figure shows the pH values of some common substances and the lethal Limits for ﬁsh species.
Yes, SS Filters have short range pH papers to provide accurate pH measurements at each 0 .5 pH interval. The short range pH papers are available across the pH range from acid (<7.0) to alkaline (>7.00), and around neutral pH (7.00). pH values in different short ranges are:
1. pH value 0.5-5
2. pH value 3.8-5.4
3. pH value 5.5-9
4. pH value 6.4-8
5. pH value 8.2-10
In vitro is Latin for "in glass" and refers to procedures conducted outside the body, generally in a test tube.
To test saliva, deposit a small amount of saliva onto a clean spoon or other suitable vessel. Dip the testing paper into the sample for three seconds. Remove. Then compare to the colour chart.
To test urine: dip the testing paper in urine flow. Shake excess fluid off paper. Then compare to the colour chart.
Many homeopathic nutritionists suggest that the optimum pH range of urine and saliva should test within 6.8 to 7.2. To obtain baseline readings, the first urine/saliva of the day should be tested before eating or drinking. However, we strongly recommend that you contact a licensed physician or healthcare practitioner before drawing conclusions about your health based on the use of urine or saliva pH tests.
Whatman Filter Paper - FAQs
Whatman qualitative filter paper, grade 1(11 micron), is the most widely used filter paper for routine applications with medium retention and flow rate. This grade covers a wide range of laboratory applications and is frequently used for clarifying liquids. Traditionally the grade is used in qualitative analytical separations for precipitates such as lead sulfate, calcium oxalate (hot) and calcium carbonate. In agriculture, it is used for soil analysis and seed testing procedures. In the food industry, Grade 1 is used for numerous routine techniques to separate solid foodstuffs from associated liquid or extracting liquid and is also widely used in education for teaching simple qualitative analytical separations.
Whatman qualitative filter paper, grade 2(8 micron), is slightly more retentive than Grade 1 with a corresponding increase in filtration time (i.e. slightly slower filtration speed). More absorbent than Grade 1. In addition to general filtration in the 8 μm particle size range, the extra absorbency is utilized, for example, to hold soil nutrient in plant growth trials.
Whatman qualitative filter paper, grade 5(2.5 micron), has the maximum degree of fine particle filtration in the qualitative range. Capable of retaining the fine precipitates encountered in chemical analysis. Slow flow rate. Excellent clarifying filter for cloudy suspensions and for water and soil analysis.
Whatman quantitative filters are designed for gravimetric analysis and the preparation of samples for instrumental analysis. They are available in three formats designed to meet your specific needs.
1. Ashless: 0.007% ash maximum for Grades 40 to 44 and a maximum of 0.01% for the 589 Grades – very pure filters ideal for a wide range of critical analytical filtration procedures.
2. Hardened low ash: 0.015% ash maximum – treated with a strong acid to remove trace metals and produce high wet strength and chemical resistance. These filters are particularly suitable for Büchner filtration where the tough smooth surface of the filter makes it easy to recover precipitates.
3. Hardened ashless: 0.006% ash maximum – acid hardened to give high wet strength and chemical resistance with extremely low ash content. The tough surface makes these filters suitable for a wide range of critical filtration procedures.
Whatman quantitative filter paper, grade 40(8 micron), is the classic general purpose ashless filter paper with medium speed and retention. Typical applications include gravimetric analysis for numerous components in cements, clays, iron and steel products; as a primary filter for separating solid matter from aqueous extracts in general soil analysis, quantitative determination of sediments in milk and as a pure analytical grade clean-up filter for solutions prior to AA spectrometry. Used also as a high-purity filter in the collection of trace elements and radionuclides from the atmosphere
Whatman quantitative filter paper, grade 41(20-25 micron), is the fastest ashless filter paper, recommended for analytical procedures involving coarse particles or gelatinous precipitates (e.g. iron or aluminum hydroxides). Also used in quantitative air pollution analysis as a paper tape for impregnation when determining gaseous compounds at high flow rates
Whatman quantitative filter paper, grade 42(2.5 micron), is a world standard for critical gravimetric analysis with the finest particle retention of all Whatman cellulose filter papers.
Typical analytical precipitates include barium sulfate, metastannic acid and finely precipitated calcium carbonate.
Whatman quantitative filter paper, grade 43(16 micron), is intermediate in retention between Grades 40 and 41, and twice as fast as Grade 40. Typical applications include foodstuffs analysis; soil analysis; particle collection in air pollution monitoring for subsequent analysis by XRF techniques; and inorganic analysis in the construction, mining and steel industries.
Whatman quantitative filter paper, grade 44(3 micron), is thin version of Grade 42 retaining very fine particles but with lower ash weight per sample and almost twice the flow rate of Grade 42.
Compressed Air Filter Cartridge - FAQs
It is any excess or shortage of substance and / or energy, having an adverse effect on performance and reliability of the oil system.
Water in oils can occur in dissolved, emulsified and free states. Water content which does not exceed 60% of the saturation point is considered acceptable at working temperature. Therefore it is recommended to carry out repeated or at least occasional measurements of the water content in oil using a water sensor (instrument WSTM + sensor WSPS 05). If free water is present, it means that the oil is completely saturated with water and its further usage represents danger to all parts of the oil and operating system.
The recommended oil cleanliness level is usually prescribed by the manufacturer of the machine depending on pressure and clearance within the friction pairs in the machine. In order to maintain the recommended oil cleanliness level, it is necessary to establish monitoring and control and to adjust the filter system. In case the manufacturer of the machine does not provide information on recommended oil cleanliness level, guidelines in Table 2 can be used. Tablet 2- Guidelines for cleaning oil
|Type of system and application||Required cleanliness level ISO 4406:99||Required cleanliness level NAS 1638|
|Very clean oil.
Operating systems with very tight tolerance and sensitive to dirt.
High pressure hydraulics, servo systems, proportional valves.
|Lightly contaminated oil.
For medium and low pressure industrial hydraulics.
|Medium contaminated oil.
Mobile hydraulics, motors, medium-pressure working systems.
Heavy industrial machines, low-pressure operating systems, mobile hydraulics.
|Highly contaminated oil.
Not recommended for oil systems.
It is a numeric value, defined by one of the standards (ISO4406: 99, SAE AS 4059, NAS1638), showing the amount of mechanical contaminants in the oil. Contamination varies based on type and size. Necessary oil cleanliness levels for working machines are usually recommended by their respective manufacturers.
Determination of particle contamination can be carried out in several ways. Today the most common method involves laser particle counter. Microscopic count and control enables particle type identification. Based upon the identified types, it is possible to draw conclusions as to their origin.
Clean oil ensures the entire oil system cleanliness. Clean oil system ensures the maximum availability of machines and equipment and it minimizes the spare parts and maintenance expenses.
Extended Service Filter. These filters feature longer life than standard filters, due to a lot more surface area.